against rabies
Health Department vaccinates NYC raccoons
against rabies
copyright (c) 2021 Frania Shelley-Grielen. All rights reserved.

The presence of rabid raccoons found in Manhattan has heightened media aware-
ness of these animals and the disease. What is happening with the raccoons around
town and how is the city planning on dealing with this?

On February 4 of 2010, I spoke with with NYC Health Department veterinarian
and public health expert in communicable diseases, Dr. Sally Slavinski.

Records show that in May of 2005 The State of New York conducted an oral rabies
vaccine program in eastern Queens to help control raccoon rabies outbreaks in
Nassau County. When asked if other programs had been done since then, Dr.
Slavinski indicated that there had been no other programs, explaining that rabies
was first found in NYC in 1992. Rabid raccoons were found in Manhattan in 1993
but not seen again until 2009 (12 rabid raccoons were reported for the entire year
of 2009 and 6 as of 1/14/2010). Dr. Slavinski pointed out that in general human
or companion animal incidents with raccoons have been very rare in NYC.  The
infected raccoons identified in New York County, were found ill, injured or dead.

Asked whether the City will conduct an oral rabies vaccine program in response to
the increase in rabies cases, Dr. Slavinski noted that the Health Department is
currently planning a program to utilize an injectable vaccine (which the city
considers to be more effective) targeting the raccoon populations in Central Park,
Morningside Park and Riverside Park. In order to be as effective (or more) as the
oral vaccine the injectable one must inoculate the same or a greater number of
raccoons. The injectable rabies vaccine necessitates live trapping to administer
where the oral vaccine would not.  The doctor stressed the department’s policy of
respect for all wildlife and verified that humane trapping procedures will be
followed in all programs.

Questioned about reported raccoon sightings on adjacent grounds to East Harlem's
Thomas Jefferson Park, Dr. Slavinski responded that the City would expand the
program if necessary.

Issues as to the most effective timing of the vaccine programs were raised. Studies
have shown that city raccoons tend to live closer to each other and to travel less
than their rural counterparts thanks to abundant food sources found in urban
areas, however, some  mothers will shift locations with their young in summer
months. Dr. Slavinski noted that the intended vaccine programs should utilize
seasons when the raccoons were most concentrated in one area, such as the winter
and the spring as well as the summer when there might be more movement. Efforts
to implement the programs as soon as possible are in the works.

Raccoons are highly susceptible to and carry canine distemper. Like rabies, canine
distemper affects the central nervous system and symptoms of both diseases are
similar. When asked if an observer could tell the difference in an infected raccoon,
Dr. Slavinski noted that there is no way to differentiate, adding, however, that
canine distemper has not been found to date in the Manhattan raccoon population.

Raccoons are also known to carry roundworms. But, a 2008 study of Chicago
raccoons showed that the urban raccoons carried significantly less of the parasites
than their country cousins (this is thought to be due to city raccoons consuming
fewer small animals that might harbor the worms). Dr. Slavinski was not familiar
with similar studies on NYC raccoons but did note that the opportunity for further
study did exist.

The City of New York is working on dealing with the presence of rabies in our
raccoons in the best possible manner. Citizens can contribute to the effort by
educating themselves on co-existing with urban wildlife.

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Living with urban wildlife means allowing them their space
"The City of New York is
working on dealing with the
presence of rabies in our
raccoons in the best possible
manner. Citizens can
contribute to the effort by
educating themselves on
coexisting with urban wildlife."
Raccoons thrive on open and accessible garbage left by humans
212-722-2509 / 646-228-7813

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